Deep Vein Thrombosis: Causes, Symptoms And Treatment

An important protective function of the body is the formation of blood clots with the help of platelets and fibrin, which, when the vessels are damaged, prevent blood loss. This is the process of coagulation, for which the homeostasis system is responsible. Deep vein thrombosis: symptoms and treatment

But sometimes coagulation is not good but becomes a serious pathology. The formation of a blood clot without damage to the vessel leads to the fact that a clot – embolus begins to wander around the bloodstream. It blocks the lumen of the vein and clogs it, which leads to thrombosis. The blockage of a blood vessel causes circulatory disturbance and an inadequate supply of organs. In the case of complete overlap of the lumen of the vessel, hypoxia develops, due to which the death of cells begins.

The main danger of the disease is frequent suddenness. In a person who has almost no suspicion, a blood clot comes off and thromboembolism (blockage) of the pulmonary arteries develops and then the chances of timely help and a successful outcome are quite small.

Localization thrombosis can be venous and arterial. Venous, in turn, is divided into thrombophlebitis of superficial veins and deep vein thrombosis. According to statistics, superficial veins account for more than 90 percent of thrombosis, and deep veins – 5-10 percent. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) will be discussed in more detail in this material. Deep vein thrombosis: symptoms and treatment

Table of Contents

What is deep vein thrombosis?
Acute Deep Vein Thrombosis
Causes of Deep Vein Thrombosis
Congenital Risk Factors
Acquired Risk Factors
Mixed risk factors
Signs and symptoms of Deep Vein Thrombosis
If the temperature of the foot rises
Diagnostics
Thrombosis treatment
Drug treatment
Surgery
Is thrombosis treated forever
Complications
Rehabilitation after DVT
DVT Prevention
What is deep vein thrombosis?
Deep veins are called that are invisible when examined. They are located in the intramuscular fascial canals and divert blood from groups of deep muscles. Deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremities is the formation of a thrombus in these vessels and the subsequent deterioration of blood flow.

With deep vein thrombosis, blood can reach the heart only through small vessels, which is why swelling and an increase in the temperature of the limb, in which the problem develops, form at the site of vein obstruction.

There are several classifications of pathology. The main ones are:

by localization;
at the stage of development;
on etiology;
according to the clinical course.
According to the localization, DVT is divided into segments in which the problem develops:

Segment Affected Deep Veins
Lower Trunk veins of the lower extremities.
Average External and general iliac veins.
Upper Inferior vena cava.
The disease often develops in these vessels. With its development in other deep veins, pathology is attributed to the segment in which it is located.
Deep vein thrombosis develops in three stages:


acute – up to one month;
subacute – after completion of acute and up to three months;
chronic – after three months from the onset of the disease.
Acute Deep Vein Thrombosis
The most dangerous stage of the disease is acute. In the period up to one month from the moment of the onset of the disease, all therapeutic actions must be taken to stop the disease and eliminate the risk of complications.

If you miss the moment for a drug intervention, then the transition to the subacute stage will not occur.Deep vein thrombosis will provoke complications that can lead to death

It is important to correctly diagnose the disease at the time of its inception. This will leave time for choosing the right treatment tactics and preventing complications.
By etiology, deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremities can be:

primary,
congenital.
In the clinical course, the compensation stage and the decompensation stage are distinguished. A single classification system for deep vein thrombosis does not exist. In total, there are more than twenty options for sharing this diagnosis. These are the most common.Deep vein thrombosis: symptoms and treatment

Causes of Deep Vein Thrombosis
The main pathogenetic causes of thrombosis are three:

damage to the walls of the vein,
impaired blood flow
violation of the blood.
These are direct causes of vascular thrombosis. And they are caused by a number of reasons that are attributed to risk factors for the development of leg thrombosis. They are divided into three groups:

congenital
acquired
mixed.
Congenital Risk Factors
Congenital or genetic risk factors are the characteristics of the body of a particular person, because of which he increases the likelihood of blood clots. The factors of this group include:

antithrombin deficiency – a substance that inhibits the process of blood coagulation;
problems with the homeostasis system;
congenital pathologies of the circulatory system;
problems with the secretion and absorption of proteins C and S.
Congenital factors are the most dangerous. They are practically not diagnosed without visible manifestations and can be manifested immediately by problems with blood circulation.

Acquired Risk Factors
This group includes acquired diseases, bad habits and associated risk factors for thrombosis.
The most common risk factors for deep vein thrombosis are given in the table:

Risk factor Frequency encountered
High blood pressure (hypertension) 75%
Phlebeurysm 62%
Chronic obesity 56%
Atherosclerosis 44%
Diabetes 37%
Smoking 21%
These figures are taken from a study by specialists of the Gomel State Medical University. In addition to these reasons, the risk factors for deep vein thrombosis are:

chronic lung disease;
fractures in the lower leg;
the presence of a catheter in the central vein;
liver pathology;
heart attack before the age of 45 years;
general anesthesia;
surgical intervention on the bones;
oncological diseases ;
use of oral contraceptives.